Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Cat Stevens & His Journey to Islam :: essays research papers

Before you read this : Yusuf Islam ( formely Cat Stevens ) used to be one of the most popular POP artists in England in the 70th till he chose to be a Muslim and Alhamdulillah he found the light of Allah ! I should simply say all what you know as of now, to affirm what you definitely know, the message of the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) as given by God - the Religion of Truth. As individuals we are given a cognizance and an obligation that has put us at the highest point of creation. Man is made to be God's representative on earth, and it is imperative to understand the commitment to free ourselves all things considered and to make our lives a groundwork for the following life. Anyone who passes up on this opportunity isn't probably going to be offered another, to be brought back over and over, in light of the fact that it says in Qur'an Majeed that when man is brought to account, he will say, "O Lord, send us back and give us another chance." The Lord will say, "If I send you back you will do the same." MY EARLY RELIGIOUS UPBRINGING I was raised in the advanced universe of all the extravagance and the high existence of Broadway. I was conceived in a Christian home, yet we realize that each kid is conceived in his unique nature - it is just his folks that go him to either religion. I was given this religion (Christianity) and thought along these lines. I was instructed that God exists, yet there was no immediate contact with God, so we needed to reach Him through Jesus - he was in reality the entryway to God. This was pretty much acknowledged by me, however I didn't swallow everything. I took a gander at a portion of the sculptures of Jesus; they were simply stones with no life. What's more, when they said that God is three, I was baffled significantly more however couldn't contend. I pretty much trusted it, since I needed to have regard for the confidence of my folks. POP STAR Slowly I got distanced from this strict childhood. I began making music. I needed to be a major star. Each one of those things I found in the movies and on the media grabbed hold of me, and maybe I thought this was my God, the objective of bringing in cash.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

I Went To The Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra Concert At Eastman Thea Essay Example For Students

I Went To The Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra Concert At Eastman Thea Essay tre on Thursday night, February 12, 1998. Four determinations were performed. Two were by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the suggestion to Don Giovanni, K. 527 and Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-level major for piano and symphony, K. 482. Different pieces were Theme and Variations: The Four Temperaments for piano and string symphony by Paul Hindemith and Rounds for string ensemble by David Diamond. The piano soloist for the Hindemith and Mozart Piano Concerto was Emanuel Ax and Robert Bernhardt led. The principal piece, the Overture to Don Giovanni, composed by Mozart in 1787, was performed by a littler estimated ensemble with some metal instruments and one lot of kettle drum drums. It was made in the Viennese old style. The piece is written in an A B A structure and is a happy, simple listening piece particularly when you consider the show it presents. The subsequent piece was Theme and Variations: The Four Temperaments, composed by Paul Hindemith in 1940. It required a bigger ensemble, however no metal or percussion areas. Additionally, the piano was the performance instrument for this piece. Hindemith has the piano player play takes note of everywhere throughout the console, and Emmanuel Ax has the virtuosity to oblige the author. Now and again the strings and the piano soloist would hurl the subject between themselves. The topic was organized and not ready to be murmured or sung without any problem. The topic is insightful and scholarly, altogether different from the piece by Diamond that had an increasingly expressive song that could be murmured. This is regular of the expressionist and neoclassicist styles that Hindemith writes in. The ensemble initially presents the subject and afterward four varieties of it are played to and fro between the piano and symphony. Every variety of the topic summons an alternate feeling. Variety I - Melancholic is miserable sounding and starts off in a moderate rhythm with a piano performance and afterward a piano/violin two part harmony. It at that point increments in beat and the strings overwhelm until the piano rejoins them and the development finishes in a moderate rhythm. Variety II-Sanguine is a somewhat lively three step dance in triple meter in the piano with the string area going with. In Variation III-Phlegmatic, the piano again is the most significant instrument despite the fact that there are a few performances in the string segment. Apathetic methods slow or unexcited, however the rhythm is at a reasonably quick pace. Variety IV-Choleric, is an energetic development where the music sounds nearly fomented. The rhythm eases back down and afterward accelerates ordinarily during the development. The third piece, Rounds for String Orchestra, was composed by David Diamond in 1944. This piece was written in three developments for a somewhat huge and full ensemble. Notwithstanding having them play pizzicato, one thing Diamond had the string players do that was emphatically twentieth century was to tap the wood of their bows on their cello or string bass. This created a somewhat intriguing striking sound. David Diamond formed in the neoromantic style and the song is more erotic than that of the Hindemith piece. This piece is additionally in A B A structure with the first and third developments being Allegros and the center development an Adagio. The developments are played just after one another with no interruption. The subject that is presented in the principal development is expressed first by the violas and afterward rehashed by the cellos and basses. This topic is then rehashed a similar route in the third development. The subsequent development is increasingly melodious and being in a more slow beat, it goes about as a support between the two quick developments. .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c , .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .postImageUrl , .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .focused content zone { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c , .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:hover , .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:visited , .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:active { border:0!important; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; murkiness: 1; change: darkness 250ms; webkit-progress: mistiness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:active , .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:hover { haziness: 1; change: obscurity 250ms; webkit-progress: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .focused content territory { width: 100%; position: relativ e; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: intense; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content embellishment: underline; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; fringe range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: striking; line-tallness: 26px; moz-outskirt span: 3px; content adjust: focus; content enrichment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-stature: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: total; right: 0; top: 0; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u43da 7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c .focused content { show: table; tallness: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u43da7ac3e4ec717b40f472b2f662155c:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Deaf President Now EssayThe fourth choice was another Mozart piece, his Piano Concerto No. 22 in E-level major for Piano and Orchestra, K. 482, written in 1785. The concerto had three developments and required a moderate measured symphony with just one lot of kettle drum for percussion utilized uniquely in the first and third developments additionally, clearly, a performance piano again played by Mr. Hatchet. The piece is in an A B A structure. The primary development, an Allegro, is in fourfold meter and in the significant key, E-level. The subsequent development is an Andante in triple meter in the minor key, C minor . The last development is a Rondo Allegro additionally in the significant key yet in triple meter. All around the show was a pleasant encounter. I think my preferred piece was the Overture to Don Giovanni. The tune of the Diamond piece was unquestionably significantly more expressive than that of any of different pieces. The Hindemith piece had a troublesome subject to follow; that was the kind of piece that would turn out to be progressively agreeable to me the more I tuned in to it. I likewise delighted in the Mozart piano concerto, particularly since it is in the traditional style that I am inclined toward. All things considered, it was a pleasant night at the RPO, and with the modest seats that are accessible, I would consider returning to another show, and most likely on a weekday night when it isn't exceptionally packed and stopping is entirely accessible!

CORPORATE AND GLOBAL STRATEGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

CORPORATE AND GLOBAL STRATEGY - Essay Example By and by the technique of an organization should be checked on after a specific interim of time, with the goal that the present methodologies meet the changing needs of the clients and matches the changing business condition. By rehearsing this, the likelihood of a firm to get accomplishment in the commercial center increments to a huge degree (Stonehouse and Houston, 2012, p.1). In this setting of the examination, HSBC has been picked as the association. The examination uncovered that the developing markets and opening up of the world economy has permitted the organization to complete global extension. HSBC consistently follows remote direct speculation procedure to work in worldwide markets. The outside ecological examination plainly featured that in the vast majority of the nations where HSBC works have stable world of politics and in this way don't have any operational requirements. So as to increase upper hand HSBC utilizes a blend of separation and cost authority technique to work in the market. Anyway it is suggested that the organization ought to likewise concentrate on utilizing center methodology, which will permit them to take into account specialty section too. Presentation HSBC Holdings Plc or normally known as HSBC, is a UK based global money related and banking association. HSBC Holdings plc was set up in the year 1991 by Sir Thomas Sutherland. Anyway the beginning of HSBC bank goes back to 1865, when the branches were opened in Shanghai and Hong Kong (Stadler, 2011, p.189). It is by and by headquartered at Canary Wharf, London, United Kingdom. HSBC is basically engaged with giving business banking administrations, riches the executives, retail banking, speculation banking administrations and furthermore worldwide private banking. It is one of the biggest money related administrations and banking association of the world. The results of the organization incorporate different sort of advances, current and bank account, protection, charge cards, f ixed stores, speculation administrations and warning administrations. Besides HSBC likewise has solid nearness in areas, for example, assets and vitality, and research and investigation (Hsbcnet, n.d.). As indicated by the rundown of Forbes magazine 2012, the organization was the 6th biggest traded on an open market organization and third biggest bank of the world. HSBC Holdings plc was built up in the year 1991 by Sir Thomas Sutherland. Anyway the starting point of HSBC bank goes back to 1865, when the branches were opened in Shanghai and Hong Kong. The organization has nearness in 84 nations of the world and is recorded in the Bermuda, London, New York, Hong Kong and Paris stock trades. HSBC contains around 6900 workplaces all through the zones of its activities (Hsbcservicedelivery, n.d.). The significant contenders incorporate Barclays bank, Royal Bank of Scotland, Citigroup and J P Morgan Chase among others. The report will basically feature the corporate level and business lev el procedures of HSBC. Throughout the investigation, inward just as outside examination of the association will be conveyed. In this setting investigation devices, for example, SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s 5 powers, and worth chain will be utilized. Contingent upon the result, scarcely any proposals will be likewise introduced. At last the report will finish up by featuring the significant and basic issues of the investigation. Corporate Strategy Corporate system can be alluded to as the guide of dynamic which is liable for deciding and uncovering the reason and goal of the association. Moreover a corporate methodology likewise features plans and strategies by which the association will have the option to accomplish those objectives. HSBC is considered as one of the biggest traded on an open market organization and is attempting to extend their business in those nations, where they didn't began the activities. Anyway in each viewpoint

Friday, August 21, 2020

Ghostwriting A Lesser Known Career Path that Pays Big

Secretly composing A Lesser Known Career Path that Pays Big Graduating with a science certificate, I did not understand I would wind up being an independent author. I decided to be one, as it most appropriate my life during the downturn time frame in 2009. In the same way as other different scholars who stall out with low paying substance factories like Elance (presently Upwork), I began my vocation winning peanuts. That changed when I researched for a blog entry in 2013 about how much professional writers win. That examination instructed me that I was profoundly undercharging at $1 per page. The first eBook I ever secretly composed for a customer was more than 50 pages in length and paid just $50. What's more, that included Elance’s and PayPal’s expenses, as well! Today, in 2018, I charge as much as $1-$2 per word. I charge more for imaginative work or fiction than for true to life. On the off chance that the work requires broad research, the rate runs higher. This implies secretly composing a 10k words novella would effectively win me $10,000. Presently, envision what a full-length novel of 60,000 to 100,000 pays. Secretly composing is a rewarding specialty that numerous journalists don’t think a lot about. Why Ghostwrite? In all actuality: I have attempted independently publishing. This expects time to market and sell your books. Secretly composing is much simpler, less upsetting, includes less promoting, and pays well. At the point when I began my vocation as an independent author, I was attempting to raise a family while as yet being a ‘good’ housewife. I required, now in my life, to telecommute. Secretly composing appeared to accommodate my way of life superbly. How I Land Ghostwriting Gigs Secretly composing simply fell into my lap, however coherently it is a little jump from independent composition. I was composing web journals and articles when one of my recurrent customers inquired as to whether I’d be keen on secretly composing digital books. I eventually composed countless them for a similar customer. He was caring enough to get the message out to his friends which landed more work. As the proprietor of a composing business now, I obtain the greater part of my work through my Facebook page. It’s not that my customers are excessively lethargic or clumsy to compose their own work. They are simply excessively occupied with vocations or family to make the work they wish to advertise, which is the standard in today’s world. Systems administration encourages me as well. At the point when I meet another person and present myself as a professional writer, individuals are quick to share splendid thoughts or stories for their books and have me write them down for them. Such a large number of individuals have a story, yet not the expertise nor time to carry them to fulfillment. Is Ghostwriting for You? On the off chance that you are connected to your composition, likely clandestine writing isn’t a solid match for you. In any case, in the event that you appreciate toying with others’ thoughts and trim them into your own words, it may very well be your specialty. Shows improvement over Traditional writing?â It sure does, however you don’t get rich short-term. There are some independent professional writers asserting six figures every year. They do win that sum, yet they didn’t immediately. Expand upon your portfolio and notoriety first. At first, secretly composing will take care of your tabs; your clandestine writing cash. I making the most of my first occasion toward the south of France and afterward in the States in 2015 and 2016 separately. In 2017, my family went to Spain and Pakistan. For 2018, I’ve arranged an extraordinary shock as we will commend our tenth wedding commemoration in December. All gratitude to secretly composing, I am getting a charge out of a real existence that numerous simply dream of. Brief

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder An Overview

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder An Overview Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Print Symptoms and Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder By Marcia Purse Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing. Learn about our editorial policy Marcia Purse Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on May 28, 2018 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on August 02, 2019 Bipolar Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes Treatment Living With In Children Your Rights In This Article Table of Contents Expand Assessing Symptoms Bipolar Mania  Symptoms Bipolar Depression  Symptoms Differential Diagnosis Diagnostic Challenges View All Bipolar disorder isnt just about having mood swings. Its a serious mental health condition that used to be referred to as manic depression. According to the DSM-5, the guide used to diagnose mental illnesses, there are two main types of bipolar disorder that can be diagnosed based on the severity and nature of their symptoms:?? Bipolar I â€"  Individuals  with bipolar I experience at least one manic  episode in their lives. Although not required for the formal diagnosis, the vast majority will also experience major depressive episodes during the course of their lives.Bipolar II  â€" Individuals  with bipolar II have at least one hypomanic episode (a less serious form of mania) and at least one major depressive episode. Assessing Symptoms Illustration by Hugo Lin. © Verywell, 2018.   Being a mental health condition, blood draws or imaging exams wont help with diagnosing bipolar disorder but may sometimes be ordered to help rule out medical conditions that may be contributing to the symptoms. To confirm a diagnosis, a person must meet the criteria outlined above (symptoms and frequency), which will be assessed through a psychiatric assessment.?? Note that  symptoms of bipolar disorder are the same in women and men, but societal and gender roles can affect how they manifest or how others perceive them. Bipolar Mania  Symptoms Manic episodes last at least seven days. Hypomanic episodes involve the same symptoms, but the individuals functioning isnt markedly impaired and psychotic symptoms cannot be present. Symptoms of a manic or hypomanic episode include:?? Decreased need for sleepTalking excessivelyRacing thoughtsBeing easily distractedPhysical agitation and relentless movementIncreased sexual desireImpulsive risk behaviors (including gambling and lavish spending)Grandiosity or inappropriate behaviorIrritability, hostility, or aggressionDelusions or hallucinations Bipolar Depression  Symptoms During a depressive episode, an individual may experience the following symptoms:?? Crying for no reason or prolonged periods of sadnessFeelings of guilt or hopelessnessLoss of interest in activities that usually give you pleasureExtreme fatigue, including the inability to get out of bedLoss of interest in your health, nutrition, or physical appearanceDifficulty concentrating or remembering thingsSleeping excessively or difficulty sleepingSuicidal thoughts or an impulse to self-harm Problems with cognitive skills, such as  short-term memory trouble, difficulty concentrating, and indecision, may be the first things noticed by others when someone has bipolar depression. It can interfere with an individuals performance and make it difficult to complete tasks. Physical Symptoms Associated With Depressive Episodes During depressive episodes, individuals may experience a variety of physical symptoms, including unexplained aches and pains.?? Changes in weight are also common. While some people struggle to eat when theyre feeling down, others turn to food for comfort.  Thus, both weight loss and weight gain can be symptoms of a depressive episode.?? Psychomotor agitation, an increase in activity caused by mental rather than physical tension or psychomotor retardation, slowing of both thought and physical activities, may also occur.?? Differential Diagnosis There are distinct diagnostic criteria that have been proposed for bipolar disorder, but even with these criteria, the diagnosis is far from easy. Psychiatric conditions that can manifest symptoms similar to bipolar disorder include: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Hyperactivity and distractibility are two of the hallmark symptoms of  attention deficit hyperactivity disorder  (ADHD). However, they are also quite predominant in bipolar disorder, especially as it relates to children. To further complicate things, these conditions can often co-occur.?? Alcohol/Substance Abuse It is very common for those with bipolar disorder to struggle with alcohol and substance abuse issues.?? This is often an attempt, even on an unconscious level, to  self-medicate. Additionally, the effects of certain substance use (which may cause hallucinations or the inability to sleep) can be confused with the symptoms of bipolar disorder. In addition to these concerns,  alcohol may interact  with the medications used to treat bipolar disorder. Borderline Personality Disorder   The diagnostic criteria for  borderline personality disorder  include  impulsivity, suicidal behavior, reactivity of mood,  inappropriate anger, and transient paranoia. All of these are also associated with bipolar disorder. It is possible for an individual to be diagnosed with both of these disorders as well. (Learn more about the similarities and  differences between bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.)?? Delusional Disorder The hallmark of delusional disorder is non-bizarre delusions, meaning the situation may be possible.  Mood episodes can be present but they are brief in duration relative to the delusion.?? Depression The one thing that distinguishes depressive disorders (unipolar depression) from bipolar disorder is  mania/hypomania.?? If a patient with depression swings into an episode of mania, the diagnosis becomes bipolar disorder. Many people who have undiagnosed bipolar disorder are found to have the disorder when medications such as some antidepressants are started and precipitate mania.?? Eating Disorders It is not uncommon for those with bipolar disorder to experience  eating disorders.?? Moreover, depression, anxiety and irritability often result  from eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an extreme fear of gaining weight or getting fat. Those with this disorder often have a body weight of less than 85 percent of that which is considered normal.?? Bulimia nervosa is typified by periods of binge eating followed by purging (purposely vomiting). Panic Disorder Panic disorder  is characterized by recurrent, spontaneous  panic attacks. Panic disorder is often comorbid (occurs together) with mood and other psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, panic attacks are also common in those with bipolar disorder.?? Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that causes intense disturbances in cognition (thinking), behaviors, and emotions. It consists of two classifications of  Symptomsâ€"positive and negative.  Positive symptoms  include delusions,  hallucinations, disorganized speech and thinking, disorganized behavior,  catatonic behavior, and inappropriate moods.  Negative symptoms  are flattened emotions, lack of speech and a reduction in goal-directed behavior. The  symptoms of schizophrenia are easily confused with those of bipolar disorder.?? Schizoaffective Disorder A diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is given when there are symptoms of major depression or mania, along with certain symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the delusions or hallucinations must persist for periods when the mood symptoms aren’t present. As you might expect, there is a great deal of confusion and controversy surrounding differentiating this disorder from bipolar disorder.?? Diagnostic Challenges While specific, the assessment of bipolar criteria is also highly subjective. As such, cases are often missed. According to a study published in 2018, 60% of patients seeking care for recurring depression actually have bipolar disorder.?? On the other hand, over-diagnosis of bipolar disorder is also a concern. A 2013 review of clinical studies demonstrated that bipolar disorder was incorrectly diagnosed in:?? 42.9 percent of substance abuse treatment centers40 percent of patients with borderline personality disorder37 percent of cases where a clinician inexperienced in bipolar disorder made the call A study released in 2010 showed that, of 528 people receiving Social Security disability for a bipolar disorder, only 47.6 percent met the strict diagnostic criteria. Caveats When Diagnosing the Type There are two important caveats that may further complicate the process of distinguishing the two types of bipolar disorder. One is that although present psychotic symptoms are one of the things that differentiate  bipolar I mania from bipolar II hypomania, someone with bipolar II  may  experience hallucinations or delusions during  depressive episodes  without the diagnosis changing to bipolar I.?? The second is that someone with bipolar I disorder may also have hypomanic episodes. In fact, they commonly do. But, someone with bipolar II does not ever have  a manic episode. If a manic episode occurs in someone with bipolar II, the diagnosis will be changed.?? A Word From Verywell If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of bipolar disorder, its important to talk to your physician. Your physician may want to rule out any potential physical health issues that could be contributing to your symptoms. Your physician may refer you to a mental health professional for an evaluation. The treatment provider can assess your symptoms and, once a proper diagnosis is made, can assist with developing a treatment plan. Theories About the Causes of Bipolar Disorder

Saturday, June 27, 2020

Corporate Crime Definition Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Why has the analysis of crimes of the powerful been such a growth area in criminology over the past century? It is tempting to give a simple or even simplistic answer to the above question: it is tempting to say that analysis and theory of crimes of the powerful have grown so quickly in the last century because the quantity and diversity of such crimes have themselves exploded outwards. As the number of crimes committed by the powerful have risen exponentially across the years and continents, so the police forces, crime-prevention agencies and legislators of the governments charged with halting these crimes have had to evolve into larger and more complex organizations also. For instance, amongst myriad forms of organized crime that developed in the twentieth century, one pertinent recent example is the efflorescence of high-tech and internet crime, where professional and international gangs manipulate technology to extort or steal large sums of money from the public. High-tech crime is of course a recent phenomenon; it did not exist at the turn of the last century. Therefore analysi s of such activities by law agencies has grown to respond to this new threat; moreover, the analysis and prevention of such crimes has had to grow in sophistication and size just as the crimes themselves have done. Organized crime be it narcotic trafficking, prostitution rings, corporate crimes and so on has become a massive international business, and it has required larger agencies equipped with better criminal theory and technology and international cooperation between agencies to deal with it. Moreover, the clear lapse between the professionalism and techniques of many criminal organizations and the law agencies that pursue them will require these agencies to catch-up to the advances of these criminals in the next decades. Meaning, of course, that this catch-up will depend heavily upon advances in criminal theory and analysis. Crimes of the powerful are not exclusively concerned with illegal activities of the above description, but also with crimes committed by corpo rations, by governments, by dictators and even, in an interesting new perspective, by patriarchal gender structures that sanction crimes of power against women. The attention of law agencies and legislators upon these crimes has led to a mass of new analysis and theory by criminologists on the nature of such crimes. Likewise, several theories compete to describe the causes of organized crime and crimes of the powerful. One such theory points to social change as the most profound catalyst in the spread of organized crime and the detection of organized crime. This theory assimilates the teachings of sociology, psychology, anthropology and history to produce a detailed sociological critique of these causes. In the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries, many acts committed by the powerful that would today be classified as criminal were then merely pseudo-illegal or socially disapproved of; they carried no specific criminal offence. But social and legislative advances have made the pr osecution of crimes of the powerful easier. For instance, the prosecution of corporate crime is, theoretically at least, far easier to identify and prosecute than it was in the early twentieth century. Moreover, greater media exposure of the life of corporations and governments has magnified their crimes whenever they are committed. A moment of this essay might be given to discuss exactly what is meant by the phrase crimes of the powerful. Indeed, a person unfamiliar with the literature of criminology might be forgiven for regarding the term as somewhat amorphous and nebulous: he might argue that nearly any criminal phenomenon could be termed a crime of the powerful. The dictionary defines a crime as an act punishable by law, as being forbidden by statute or injurious to the public welfare. An evil or injurious act; an offence, as in; esp. of grave character (Oxford, 1989). It is difficult to see how the word power could not be inserted into any part of this definit ion and for it still to make sense. There is therefore in the pure black letter interpretation of the law a huge shaded area that allows for misinterpretation of the term crime of power. Can, for instance, a crime of the powerful be a physical act? Or must it the top levels of an organization? Moreover, the use of the word crime is itself ambiguous. The trafficking of drugs or children is clearly illegal and criminal according to the principles of law; but we also speak of corporate crimes against the public withholding medicines from the dying, adulterating foods etc., as crimes even though they have no explicit recognition as such in law. There is then a near infinite possible extension of the word crime when one uses the word in the sense of something that ought to be illegal rather than something that is presently illegal. In Smiths words: If a crime is to be understood simply as law violation, thenno matter how immoral, reprehensible, damaging or dangerous an act is , it is not a crime unless it is made such by the authorities of the state . There is moreover often the paradoxical situation where a government that commits crimes of power against its people can only be legally recognized as doing such if it passes legislation against itself. This is obviously extremely unlikely to happen and so many such crimes go unnoticed. It is often directly against the interests of certain groups or interests to recognize the existence of certain crimes because they then have to recognize theory legal existence also. Recently however, one growth of criminal analysis of the powerful has come from greater international laws that allow for the international legal recognition of crimes committed by dictators or despots when they would never do this themselves. For instance, Saddam Hussein is near universally thought to have committed crimes of power against his people; such things were never legally recognized as crimes as such until a body such as the United Nations had the international authority to declare the illegal actions of heads of states. Sociologists and psychologists amongst other groups (Chesterton, 1997) have argued that the moral, sociological and psychological aspects of crimes of the powerful should be recognized by criminologists to a far greater extent. By using approaches such as these criminologists can add the activities of environmental pollution, insider trading, and tax evasion to the public consciousness of what constitute crimes of the powerful. In Sellins (2003) words if the study of crime is to attain an objective and scientific status, it should not allow itself to be restricted to the terms and boundaries of enquiry established by legislators and politicians . According to scholars authors like Chesterton and Dupont the intense interest in by criminologists in the analysis and prevention of crimes of the powerful is due to the massive growth and myriad new forms of these crimes. Perhaps the most powerful criminals whose crimes are explicitly illegal are international drug trafficking organizations. In 2004, according to Smith (Smith, 2004) 550 billion of cocaine and other illegal substances were transported illegally internationally. This trade is therefore lager than the GDP of many African and other third-world countries. Faced with this massive business and with its catastrophic social consequences traditional law agencies and their democratic legislators have had to radically alter the way they investigate and prosecute these crimes. The extreme complexity and ingenuity of international drug cartels have meant that governments have had to build equally complex systems of criminological analysis and technique to limit these crimes. Complex intelligence agencies like the MI5 and MI6 in England and the CIA and FBI in the United States now have innumerable specialist intelligence groups of scientists, field-officers and so on investigating the crimin al nature and consequences of organized crime such as drug trafficking, the shipping of illegal weapons and so on. Perhaps the only organizations on earth with greater power than the above organized crime syndicates are the international corporations of Western countries like Britain, America and soon. Many critics of these organizations (Chomsky, 2003) allege that the secret crimes of these corporations exceed even those of the drug barons. For instance, everyone will be familiar with the recent scandals of Enron, Anderson and Paramalat where billions of pounds were swindled by these massive companies. This white-collar crime was half a century ago hardly investigated and such crimes went essentially unnoticed. But greater public consciousness of the activities of these companies through the media has theoretically at least imposed a greater accountability and potential punishment for companies who exploit either their shareholders or their customers. This increased intere st in corporate crime has led in turn to the need for a vast number of criminologists to produce theories to explain the causes of such crimes and then strategies for their prevention. A further consequence of the media revolution of the past century and the changed social assumptions of our society has meant that the crimes of governments as crimes of power are now open to far greater than public and professional scrutiny and analysis than they ever have been before. Twenty-four hour television and instant access to news stories and the daily events of our political life have meant that the public can therefore criticise the crimes of their governments with greater ease than before. For instance, the vociferous protests in 2003 by citizens of Western democracies against the invasion of Iraq were due to the belief of those citizens that their governments had acted illegally and criminally in invading that country. Traditionally, such crimes do not fall into the sphere of cr iminology because of the numerous problems identified in the definition paragraph of this essay. However, criminologists, at least theoretically, and urged by famous opponents of the war like Noam Chomsky and Michael Moore, are coming to analyse and investigate the issues and theoretical difficulties of holding entire governments to account for committing crimes of power. Many of the principles used by criminologists to analyse the techniques and structures of organized crime indicates are being suggested to be transferred to an analysis of the crimes of government. The analysis of government crime may prove to be one of the most fruitful of the coming decades for criminologists. In this essay then, the term crimes of the powerful refers to such crimes as are carried out by organized criminal gangs (either national or international), by corporations, by governments, by powerful individuals such as corrupt magnates, businessmen and so on. Such crimes might include: corporate fraud, corporate mal-practise, illegal narcotics or arms; high-tech crimes such as computer fraud. It is necessary for the student of criminology to know something of the state criminal affairs at the end of the 19th century if he is to find a clear answer for the growth of analysis of crimes of the powerful in the twentieth century. One strong reason why analysis of such crimes was less in say 1900 was that many organized crimes did not exist at all. For instance, the use of narcotics like opium and heroin were widespread amongst all levels of society but legal also; the trade of these drugs were controlled by legally registered companies and there existed no illegal market for their production or importation. Accordingly, since these acts were not understood as crimes, British police did not need to analyse the behaviour or causes of these. Moreover, the size of the police force as well as its technical and theoretical know-how were far smaller than they are today in Brit ain, America, France and so on. Similarly, whilst many companies exploited the Victorian workforce, none did so in the systematic and pre-determined fashion that is characteristic of Anderson, Enron or Parmalat in the past ten years. Other crimes of the powerful like high-tech computer fraud obviously required no analysis or theory of criminology since they did not exist at all. Similarly, in James Smiths (Smith,1999, p44) memorable phrase At the dawn of the twenty-first century the Western world faces a plethora of organised criminality of the like that it has never known before. From the mass trafficking of illegal narcotics, to whole-scale prostitution, to high-tech computer fraud, to corporate offences on a giant scale, the police forces and criminal prevention agencies of the new century will meet challenges as they have never glimpsed in the past. And, a little further on, They will no longer compete against petty or isolated crimes of individuals, but against the sophisticated and organized attempts to make vast fortunes by systematically breaking the law. In this contest between law officer and criminal former is now far behind; it remains to be seen whether he will catch-up in the near decades (Smith, 1999, p44). Another area of rapid growth in crimes of the powerful has been the feminist critique of domestic violence committed against women by dominant males. Feminists of the last few decades have argued cogently that the term crimes of the powerful should include also these domestic abuses because of the patriarchal structures within our society that promote such abuses. The explosion of such feminist critiques flows from the fact that before this century there was no feminism as such, and domestic abuse was either not considered a crime or it was publicly invisible or ignored. The changing social philosophies such as liberalism and attitudes of the twentieth century gave birth to a greater consciousness for women and the refore greater demands for them for social and legal equality. This, in the 1960s and 1970s, leading feminists like Germane Greer campaigned for recognition of the domination of women by societal institutions and conventions that are massively weighted in favour of men. Feminist scholars and theorists argue that the vast majority of these structures and the crimes they inflict upon women are unreported; marital rape is the most frequent abuse, and nearly 80% of women in this predicament are abused repeatedly (Painter, 1991). A whole host of crimes committed by men supported by social institutions go unreported and unprosecuted. Some feminists therefore describe a fundamental imbalance in the power structures of Western society, and that agencies and organizations should be set up to combat and prevent this crime. In S. Griffins words: Men in our culture are taught and encouraged to rape women as the symbolic expression of male power (Griffin, 1971) and Brownmiller says eloqu ently that rapists are the shock troops of patriarchy, necessary for male domination. Some men may not rape, but only because their power over women is already secured by the rapists who have done their work for them (Brownmiller, 1976). This feminine critique therefore demands a considerable extension of the definition of the term crimes of the powerful to include all those thousands of incidents of unseen violence issued from an entire gender that has power over another. In this sense, arguably feminists have uncovered the crime of the powerful of all. According to feminists, the truths of this oppression has been recognised partially by criminological theorists by the tides of social legislation that have been passed in recent years to protect women from domestic violence. Nonetheless, say that criminologists yet lack a complete or detailed analytical theory of such violence; this itself being reflected by the dominance in criminology of males. In the final analysi s, the growth of the analysis of crimes of the powerful may be attributed principally to the growth of the number and types of such crimes and the subsequent need to investigate and prevent them. Some crimes of the powerful such as drug trafficking are nearly entirely new to our age, and criminologists have had to develop wholly new theories and techniques to combat it. On the other hand, entirely new academic critiques like those of feminism, sociology and psychology have identified and produced theories to describe invisible crimes of power against groups who before the last century had to suffer in silence. Criminologists too have had to swallow these theories and then learn methods and techniques to apply them to our modern world. Similarly, the rise of mass media and the extension of democratic institutions have enabled citizens with far better information about the behaviour of their corporations and governments; this awareness has in turn led to a consciousness of the s imilarity of nature between illegal crimes like drug-smuggling and corporate crimes like deliberately withholding medicines from the sick or the invasion of a foreign country. These new fields of investigation have given the criminologist much to think about. The student of criminology should not forget that the subject he studies had itself evolved over the last century to become a highly professional and international and therefore capable of greater levels and specializations in analysis than it could ever have been before.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Three Primes of Alchemy (Paracelsus Tria Prima)

Paracelsus identified three primes (tria prima) of alchemy. The Primes are related to the Law of the Triangle, in which two components come together to produce the third. In modern chemistry, you cant combine the element sulfur and mercury to produce the compound table salt, yet alchemy recognized substances reacted to yield new products. Tria Prima, the Three Alchemy Primes Sulfur – The fluid connecting the High and the Low. Sulfur was used to denote the expansive force, evaporation, and dissolution.Mercury — The omnipresent spirit of life. Mercury was believed to transcend the liquid and solid states. The belief carried over into other areas, as mercury was thought to transcend life/death and heaven/earth.Salt — Base matter. Salt represented the contractive force, condensation, and crystallization. Metaphorical Meanings of the Three Primes Sulfur Mercury Salt Aspect of Matter flammable volatile solid Alchemy Element fire air earth/water Human Nature spirit mind body Holy Trinity Holy Spirit Father Son Aspect of Psyche superego ego id Existential Realm spiritual mental physical Paracelsus devised the three primes from the alchemists Sulfur-Mercury Ratio, which was the belief that each metal was made from a specific ratio of sulfur and mercury and that a metal could be converted into any other metal by adding or removing sulfur. So, if one believed this to be true, it made sense lead could be converted into gold if the correct protocol could be found for adjusting the amount of sulfur. Alchemists would work with the three primes using a process called Solve Et Coagula, which translates to mean dissolving and coagulating. Breaking apart materials so they could recombine was considered a method of purification. In modern chemistry, a similar process is used to purify elements and compounds through crystallization. Matter is either melted or else dissolved and then allowed to recombine to yield a product of higher purity than the source material. Paracelsus also held the belief that all life consisted of three parts, which could be represented by the Primes, either literally or figuratively (modern alchemy). The three-fold nature is discussed in both Eastern and Western religious traditions. The concept of two joining together to become one is also related. Opposing masculine sulfur and feminine mercury would join to produce salt or the body.